“For though your people, O Israel, be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them shall return; an extermination is determined, overflowing with righteousness. For an extermination wholly determined shall the Lord, YHWH of hosts, make in the midst of all the earth.” (vv 22-23)
The phrase “your people” refers specifically to Israelites — that is, those who are the descendants of those whom Mosha helped lead out of the land of Egypt. This is not in reference to any modern day group which claims to have replaced the people of God – but rather, “Israel” refers to all those who worship the God of Ya’aqub — those who are faithful in observing His Torah.
Although Israel may be viewed as a large number of people, there are those within the nation that do not observe the Torah, and many more who do not have faith or any belief in the Creator. Thus Isaiah writes that “only a remnant of them shall return.” This means that only a small fragment among millions are favoured by Mar-Yah (YHWH) and who have His blessing upon them.
Our God YHWH is a Just God and we can see that He exacts punishment upon those who are disobedient to His laws and commandments. He gives every opportunity for people to repent of their wrong-doing and to return to Him (repent) and His Torah. However, it is clear in these passages that not all will do so. It is proclaimed in Isaiah that “an extermination is determined” but “overflowing with righteousness.” The Creator does not say this is only for the unfaithful among Israel, but that it shall be made “in the midst of all the earth.” Compare Psalms 1 and 2.